Nature Based Solutions
About Nature Based Solutions
Indonesia’s hydrometeorological disaster risk is increasingly threatening due to climate change; placing Indonesia in the 12th rank of 35 countries with the highest risk from multiple hazards (Global Risk Analysis by the World Bank). The average annual temperature reported by Indonesia’s Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency (BMKG) has increased by 0.03°C per decade since 1990 and is predicted to keep increasing until, in total, at 0.9-2.2°C by 2060. Climate change, driven by global warming resulting from greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, has led to extreme climate change, often indicated by two elements of climate, namely temperature and precipitation which are the primary causes of hydrometeorological hazards such as flood and drought (Milanda and Setiawan, 2019). Other than GHG emissions, abnormal changes in precipitation through annual global precipitation by hemisphere fluctuated in the 1930s and 1950s and remained high since the mid-2000s in the northern hemisphere (JMA, 2020). Heavy precipitation can lead to hydrometeorological hazards like floods, but when precipitation is below average, it can also result in drought conditions, impacting the water supply (BBC, 2020).
Furthermore, anomalies in global average temperatures, leading to higher ocean temperatures, can intensify evaporation. When combined with increased atmospheric moisture, this anomaly can trigger the formation of tropical cyclones. (Harvard SEAS, 2019). This tropical cyclone causes hydrometeorological hazards such as heavy rain and strong wind with various intensity, size, and location.
Nature-based Solutions (NbS) are defined as actions to protect, sustainably manage and restore natural and modified ecosystems that address societal challenges effectively and adaptively, simultaneously providing human well-being and biodiversity benefits (IUCN, 2016). NbS in disaster recovery often involve strategies for rebuilding more resiliently, reducing the risk of future disasters. NbS takes place after the emergency, integrating nature in reconstruction and expecting a policy shift. For instance, Hurricane Katrina occurred by the end of 2005, establishing the Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority (CPRA). Merging hurricane protection and coastal protection promotes the approach of NbS through regulations.
RDI conducted a review of literature and government policies and implemented projects to develop NbS and address their challenges in Indonesia. Research projects including ‘Retention Lake’, ‘Bio-Pore’, ‘Rain Barrel’, and ‘River Normalisation’, were used to develop the implementation of NbS in Indonesia. RDI outlined the prospects and challenges associated with implementing NbS in Indonesia. For example, the opportunity and capacity to implement NBS in Indonesia relate to Legal Regulations, Academic Studies and Community Services Activities, and Local Characteristics.