About Non-Traditional Security
Located in a region included in the Ring of Fire, Indonesia is highly vulnerable to the increasing threat of geological and hydrometeorological hazards. Combined with rapid urbanization and development endeavours, Indonesia is growing more susceptible to extreme climate change impacts and environmental degradation. Realizing the concerns at hand, the Indonesian government is in the process of embedding Adaptive Social Protection (ASP) into its social protection framework. ASP offers a promising approach to complement mainstream social protection systems, incorporating community-based informal risk-sharing arrangements and alternative protection measures against climate change impacts.
ASP is an expansion of the social protection concept that helps to build the resilience of poor and vulnerable households by investing in their capacity to prepare for, cope with, and adapt to shocks: protecting their well-being and ensuring that they do not fall nor trapped into poverty (Bowen et al., 2020). Social protection holds an important role in helping the resilience of poor and vulnerable populations; however, more concerns should be put on people living on the frontline who have to deal with the adverse impacts of climate change and natural hazards, battling even worse economic insecurity as a result. ASP recognizes that social protection programs should evolve and adapt to various shocks and stressors, such as climate change, disaster risks, and other environmental challenges. Further, ASP aims to build transformation to ensure the sustainability of community life after a disaster, climate events, or health emergencies, and as a form of adaptation to disaster risk and climate change adaptation (Davies, et al., 2009; Bowen et al., 2020). Hence, the ASP framework is urgently needed to combine disaster risk management, climate change adaptation, and social protection aspects.
The currently prevailing ASP framework is defined by four building blocks:
- Institutional arrangements and partnerships:
Effective ASP hinges on robust institutional structures and collaborations between government bodies, NGOs, international partners, and communities. These partnerships ensure a coordinated response to evolving vulnerabilities.
- Program and distribution system:
ASP programs are designed to target the most vulnerable populations, adapting to their changing needs as they navigate various shocks and crises.
Adequate financing mechanisms are essential to sustain ASP initiatives. These mechanisms should be agile, expanding or contracting as required to meet the demands of emerging challenges.
- Data and information:
Timely data and information are the bedrock of ASP. These underpin decision-making, program design, and the efficient delivery of assistance.
To facilitate the development and implementation of ASP in Indonesia, a collaborative effort involving RDI, Unicef, and Bappenas (National Development Planning Agency) has led to the creation of a Sub-National Implementation Strategy for ASP in Special Region of Yogyakarta, East Nusa Tenggara, and West Nusa Tenggara. This strategy anticipates the forthcoming Presidential Regulation on Social Protection Reform. Furthermore, Indonesia’s ASP development also requires mapping of social protection landscape and devising a financing strategy to support the program. This ASP strategy will be integrated into the Disaster Risk Financing and Insurance (DRFI) framework, ensuring synergy between the two concepts. In addition to these endeavours, RDI has partnered with Bappenas to conduct a background study that supports the development process of the National Mid-Term Development Plan 2025-2029 and Long-Term Development Plan 2025-2045 that focuses on poverty reduction, community empowerment, and resilience against disasters and crises.