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Transport Science in Wider Perspetive

Nowadays issues in transportartion :
1. Congestion
People tend to have freedom in mobility depand on public transport
2. Climate change
Transportation contribute the CO2 and tend to be inclined. In temrs in CO 2
production produced the highest between 2005-2012
3. Road Accident
Approximately 1,24 million people die each year as a result of road
accidents, according to the WHO.
4. Increasing trips travel time and km travelled
In same travel time we need to visit places so we need to have mobility.
5. Well being
Our economic calculation if we don`t input human perseption will be
wrong. Our trips is dominatelly with non work trip (disclosure trip). Well
being is an alternative measurement of the impact of a
service/development rather than economic variable.
6. Travel time budget
People in develop contries they have stable travel time around 1-1,5 hours.
Travel time budget is the answer when we see the development the road.
When they have travel time budget, they tend to increase their trip to reach
the time budget. When we build a roads, 6 months after the bulit will
come the congestion again.
7. Day to day variability
The time of travel different in each time and they have different variability
in a day such as way we choose and activity we do.
8. Physical health - Body Mass Index
Low economic situation such as in developing countries had lower obest
than the developing coutry.
9. Social and Mental Health
The enjoyable in commuting will influenced social and mental health.

Problems of travel demand analysis :
1. Only 210 of 485 transportation project have less than 40% error.
2. Passenger forecast of 9 of 10 of railway projects were overestimated for
around +67% of actual demand.
3. More than 50% of road projects showed differences between predicted and
actuald emand of more than ± 20%. If were doubled the difference of more
than ±40%, there were around 25% of road projects within this treeshold
Flybverg et al (2005)

What are we supposed to do?
1. We need to travel because we are impossible to do everything in one space.
2. We have our travel time budget.
3. But travelling can harms in term of fatality accident, get exposed to
polluted environment, and having less enjoyable experiences (low social
and mental health)
4. Our method is difficult to predict the demand.
Understanding human behaviour can propose more sustainable conditions/built
There is a correlation between built environment, human, and comfortable built
environemnt. So we have to make human (in physical, emotional, psycological,
and sociol cultutal) in balance and have it as an consideration.

Complexity perspective :
1. Investigate the behaviour of the smallest unit in the system (nano particle, in social science, human is the smallest unit in the system).
2. Travel is not a super system that independent from other system.
3. Travel is one of activity
- Social condition and land use are indigenous.
- Travel is in not in equilibrium

The manifestation of time-space variables to research model :
1. Geographical conditions
2. Activity-travel time allocation : working time, travelling time, socializing time
3. Socio-demographic variables : Age, occupations, etc.

Those of them will influenced :
1. Percentage of using motorized mode
2. Activity-Travel behaviour/ subjective well being
3. And How we plan and set built environment.