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A Joint Study on Urbanization, People Mobility and Inclusive Development across Urban-Rural Continuum in ASEAN

Team Leader :

Dr. Saut Sagala, Dr. Mizan Bisri, Dr. Fikri Zul Fahmi, Marisna Yulianti, M Adryan Sasongko


Team Member :

M Adryan SasongkoAnnisaa, Rickdy, Dela, Indah, Nawang


Urbanisation has become one of megatrends occurring worldwide. Urbanisation is defined as a process of making an area more urban, due to the increasing proportion of the urban population by the natural increase of population in urban areas as well as urban-rural migration and mobility. The definitions of 'urban' across the countries differ contextually in accordance with their countries' situations. However, most statistics in the world define 'urban' "traditionally" according to density and threshold, while in general, the rural is not really defined, and often refers to all areas that are not categorised as urban. The different definitions generate implications of the 'urban' and 'rural', making urbanisation seem like a process of change from rural to urban. However, urbanisation in is a complex process and it shows through the emergence of transition areas, for example, due to in-situ urbanisation and extended urbanisation. The notion of Extended Metropolitan Region (EMR) and Mega Urban Region (MUR) shows that the "urban" and "rural" are not dichotomous. In this sense, there are regions that are not purely 'urban' or purely 'rural', but maybe something in between. Therefore, the use of the term "urban-rural continuum" will be beneficial in portraying urban-rural linkages. Urbanisation acts as a driver of development, poverty, and inequality reduction by providing more opportunities to improve livelihoods. However, it also determines the future of sustainability and inequality both within the urban area and between rural and urban areas. Women, poor women, poor households, children who are left behind, youths (with a specific focus on girls), people with disabilities, and elderly people are amongst the most vulnerable groups impacted by urbanisation.

The ASEAN Secretariat in collaboration with the Government of Norway and the United Nations is implementing a project called "A Joint Study on Urbanisation, People Mobility and Inclusive Development across Urban-Rural Continuum in ASEAN". The Concept Note was ad-referendum endorsed by the Senior Officials Meeting on Rural Development and Poverty Eradication (SOMRDPE) on 13 May 2019. The endorsed Concept Note was also presented at the 26th Senior Officials Meeting for the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community (SOCA Meeting) on 16 May 2019 in Chiang Mai, Thailand, and received support from the Meeting. The purpose of the Project is to develop a coherent set of policy recommendations which will serve to inform subsequent joint actions by the ASEAN to address inclusive development across the urban-rural continuum to ensure no one is left behind. This purpose is in line with the ASEAN Framework Action Plan on Rural Development and Poverty Eradication's objective of strengthened convergence of rural development and poverty eradication initiatives at the local, national and regional level through improved coordination mechanisms, policy coherence and effective localisation of rural development and poverty eradication programmes and actions.

The Project will also contribute to the ASEAN Vision 2025 and ASCC Blueprint 2025 particularly the strategic measure of Strengthen positive economic, social and environmental linkages among urban, peri-urban and rural areas at regional level and achievement of the Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development, New Urban Agenda, and Global Compact on Migration at global level. The Project will assess the multifaceted issues on the urban-rural continuum to identify key policy gaps. Local functions and strategies will be unpacked, together with identification of key actors and stakeholders who can utilize the results of the study. Eventual recommendations will take into consideration the current architecture of ASEAN where sectors are organized into the three Community Pillars; existing strategies and practices in ASEAN in moving towards inclusive development across urban-rural continuum; as well as the need to promote a people-centered approach and integrated policy framework to address cross-sectoral / cross-pillar collaboration at sub-national, national and regional levels.


Study Scope This study explored whether a pattern emerges after analysing the urban-rural continuum/linkages in relevant sectors, i.e., health, education, environment, and social inclusion in the 10 ASEAN Member States, namely Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam. In assessing the urban-rural linkages and continuum, this study focused on analysing the data related to three aspects in urban-rural flows, which are 1) People, which refers to dynamic movement of people in urban-rural continuum, and their relationships with communities, cultures, and economies; 2) Amenities, which refers to features that are provided for the needs of people and support their activities (tangible and intangible); and 3) Capital, which refers to economic and financial resources (subject to data availability). By looking forward to each sector, it helps to identify the pattern of urban-rural linkages. Data Collection This study employs primary and secondary data. Secondary data is collected through desk review of relevant documents, and primary data is collected through Focus Group Discussion (FGD) with ministries and agencies in AMS; Think Tanks, Research Institutes, and Study Centres with relevant scope of work; and interview with UN Agencies. Additionally, this study also takes into account inputs and feedback collected through the Expert Committee Meetings and Regional Workshop. Data Analysis Data and information were collected through desk review, interviews, and focus group discussion with relevant stakeholders in policy making and experts in the appropriate field, and secondary data collection was compiled and analysed by using different methods of analysis, including trend analysis, projection analysis, content analysis, coding method, quantitative descriptive, narrative, systematic literature review, gaps analysis, and stakeholder mapping.













Last updated 01 Jul 2022 16:07 pm

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