This Op-Ed connects Nature-based Solutions with a spatial approach for more effective multi-disaster mitigation, specifically in Palangka Raya. The city, located in Central Kalimantan, faces a range of hazards, including drought, land fires, and floods, due to its geographical location. These hazards were then exacerbated by climate change, such as the El Nino Southern Oscillation, a climate anomaly. The article explores Palangka Raya’s disaster risks, existing mitigation strategies, implementation of NbS, and challenges in implementing these strategies. The spatial approach provides benefits such as maps used as communication tools, diverse prioritization for different locations, and improved mitigation implementation strategy. The combination of NbS and the spatial approach would offer possibilities for further research and investments to promote community resilience. The article emphasises the need for collaborative efforts amongst the government agencies, private stakeholders, industries, and communities to harness NbS for enhanced resilience in Palangka Raya City.
This Op-Ed discusses the Greater Bogor Area’s Landslide Susceptibility and Vulnerability Identification in 2020. Indonesia grapples with a substantial landslide problem, notably in Jawa Barat province, including the Greater Bogor Area, where landslides ranked as the third most frequent disaster from 2014 to 2023. These events cause severe damage, such as loss of life, property damage, and extensive economic costs. Several aspects are reviewed regarding this issue: landslide exposure mapping, geological, geomorphological, land use, rainfall, and anthropogenic. The Greater Bogor Area is analysed as a case study, employing zonation through the weighted overlay method to identify areas with varying susceptibility levels. Vulnerability assessment highlights that densely populated urban zones are often situated in high-susceptibility areas, posing a significant risk. To mitigate these risks and enhance resilience, stakeholders should consider capacity-building initiatives, urban planning strategies, and post-disaster efforts, ultimately contributing to a more resilient society.
Clean Air Development
This article provides explanation regarding how countries approach and handle past pandemic situations such as H3N2, H5N1, Swine Flu, and Hong Kong Flu from prevention to protection, and responses done through best practices. This article examines the failure from countries in handling the COVID-19 Pandemics despite there having been best practices in handling Pandemic situations. Ranging from multi-sectoral unpredictability of pandemics, the question lies within whether experience matters or new unpredictable problems always shift the way countries approach Pandemic situations.
Entering 2021, UNHCR reported that the number of displaced people rose significantly from 82.4 million at the end of 2020 to more than 84 million in the first half of 2021 as the mixed result of violence, insecurity, and climate change. Taking into account only climate and environmental changes, the risks are already multi-hazard in nature, which means they are interrelated in their causes and impacts. Furthermore, the impacts of climate change may be severely emphasized where conflict exists hand in hand with recurring disasters. In Indonesia, the National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB/Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana) recorded that as of December 2021, there are already 8.26 million internally displaces people (IDPs) in the country. Ultimately, in 2018 the World Bank estimated that up to 143 million climate migrants will be generated worldwide by 2050, either through sudden onset events or slow ones coupled with other humanitarian crises, thus making the issue of human displacement more urgent than ever.
Climate & Disaster Displacement (CDD)
Climate change poses a grave danger to public health, contributing to the emergence and worsening of diseases such as tuberculosis (TB). TB is a forgotten pandemic, causing the most death from a single infectious agent, particularly in low-income and underdeveloped nations. Climate change affect the TB burden by increasing bacterial growth, making the disease more likely to spread and develop antibiotic resistance, impacting food security and nutrition. The capacity of health systems, including access, equity, quality, and costs, is also threatened. Climate change increases migration risk, resulting in more vulnerable populations and increased TB incidence. The disadvantaged groups, including ethnic minorities, poor communities, migrants and displaced people, older people, women, and children, are the most affected. To eradicate tuberculosis by 2030, health systems need to be strengthened by implementing the End TB Pillars, building climate-resilient healthcare systems, strengthening healthcare workers’ capacities, and allocating resources for the displaced and marginalized communities.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health burden that countries commit to ending through the adoption of the “2030 WHO’s End TB Strategy”. However, the emergence of COVID-19 has exacerbated the effect of poverty, as the main social determinant of TB, on the vulnerability of rural communities to TB infection and mortality. COVID-19 caused job losses and wage decline, worsening malnutrition, access to healthcare services, and stigma towards TB patients amongst people experiencing poverty. To address this, WHO encourages the implementation of a community-based intervention, which provides a people-centered TB care model. Community Health Workers (CHWs) are important in TB healthcare service, from prevention and diagnosis to treatment. However, lack of support, financial incentives, and COVID-19 physical restrictions hinder CHW healthcare delivery. Therefore, improving health financing mechanisms for TB, improving training and support systems for CHW, and mainstreaming Health-inAll-Policies are needed to strengthen community-based intervention.
Adaptive Social Protection (ASP)
The main cause of land subsidence in Jakarta can be attributed, in part, to years of unregulated urban development by the city government, despite the existence of numerous regulations and standards. To address this issue effectively, several key factors must be tackled. These include enforcing strict governmental regulations and spatial plans, expediting the development of water pipelines, actively monitoring and curbing illegal groundwater extraction, and embracing nature-based solutions while involving the community. Lessons can be drawn from Tokyo and Bangkok, where land subsidence was mitigated following the implementation of stringent regulations on groundwater use. However, addressing urban challenges requires a collective effort, as individuals need to change their mindset. Land subsidence should be a concern for various levels of society in Indonesia, fostering innovation and appreciation for countries that have successfully managed similar issues. Ultimately, collaborative efforts involving organizations, activists, academics, citizens, and the government are essential to minimize these challenges with practical and realistic solutions.
This op-ed discusses the challenges and potential solutions related to air pollution and urban development in Jakarta. It highlights the negative impact of car-centric approaches on air quality and public health, and how walking is important as a means to reduce air pollution and promote exercise and social interaction. However, pedestrians in urban areas are exposed to air pollution, which poses health risks. The high levels of air pollution in Jakarta emphasises the need for emission prevention to reduce health problems and economic losses. There needs to be a mechanism for air quality monitoring, such has been done by various platforms and organisations that offer air quality monitoring data to the public. Additionally, government efforts to improve air quality in Jakarta include policies, such as the odd-even plate policy, the establishment of Low Emission Zones, and the plan to increase pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure in the city. In conclusion, the abstract emphasises the importance of prioritizing walking and utilising public transportation as a means to reduce air pollution in Jakarta, while acknowledging the challenges posed by political dynamics in city planning. It encourages small steps toward change as a reliable solution.
Clean Air Development