Indonesia sedang gencar mengembangkan energi terbarukan dengan target jangka panjang yaitu tahun 2025 dan 2050. Meskipun begitu, realisasi energi terbarukan di Indonesia masih sangat terbatas. Pemerintah Indonesia memiliki rencana untuk mengembangkan energi terbarukan berasal dari tenaga air dan panas bumi. Maka dari itu, SRE ITS dan RDI membuat analisis perbandingan teknologi PLTS terapung dan PLTA dalam penghasilan energi terbarukan dari sumber air. Berdasarkan dari analisis tersebut, ditemukan bahwa secara ekonomi, PLTS terapung lebih efisien sementara PLTA memberikan manfaat sosial dalam menciptakan lapangan pekerjaan. Sehingga, dalam memilih teknologi bagi implementasi energi terbarukan dari sumber air tergantung pada kebutuhan dan tujuan yang spesifik.
Cities emerge as important players to cut carbon emission at not only local level, but also international level. Their involvement in global climate change governance are growing significantly within transnational municipal networks, including ICLEI and the C40. The networks provide platform for municipal governments around them to join collective effort in meeting the global target of emission reduction. Previous studies found that such network provides opportunity to build capacity for governing climate change mitigation and cities in Europe and North America have taken the advantage from it. Considering the growing membership of cities from the Southern Hemisphere and their potential contribution to the increase of emission, this research aims to explore whether and how a transnational municipal network empowers capacity of urban stakeholders in a developing country for low emission development. Currently, there is still limited studies capturing their experience to utilise the network to achieve this purpose. This study took a case of the City of Bogor which its government is affiliated to ICLEI network. In-depth interview and secondary data collection were conducted to examine influencing factors, process, and implications of the capacity building. This study found that the network administrative organisation deploys four main functions to build local capacity in Bogor: 1) technical assistance, 2) information exchange, 3) financial assistance, and 4) political advocacy. Working with large number of organisations in the process, the network administrator fails to keep the collaboration intact. Lack of human resources, selective participation, and single coordinator mechanism force the local stakeholders to be passive in the process. Eventually, the collaboration is beneficial only for entities who work closely with the network administrator or have top priority in low emission programs. This study recommends a transnational municipal network administrator to place its human resources in their city members to maintain the collaboration with local stakeholders.
Clean Air Development
This paper aims to assess migrant preparedness to earthquakes. It is based in the West Java province of Indonesia, specifically in the capital, Bandung City. The city is prone to the multi-hazard disaster risk caused by its close proximity to the Lembang fault line. This paper attempts to define international students as temporary migrants and utilises survey questions directed to migrants, in order to try to best extract information regarding the understanding, preparedness and experience of earthquakes. In this case, we approached international students from Australia that underwent academic exchange programs with a university in Bandung. The results show that migrants have similar degrees of motivation, previous experience, information and communication, and trust in authorities, which in effect also affects their level of preparedness toward earthquake hazard in Bandung City. The results were then broken down more thoroughly in an attempt to determine the cause of the similarity in each attribute. This paper also discusses through what means these attributes could be increased in order to achieve a sufficient level of preparedness and identified several recommendations.
Climate & Disaster Displacement (CDD)
Low-income people (MBRs) are one of the groups who will be profoundly affected should earthquakes occur. As there is not yet an established earthquake insurance scheme for MBRs and households in Indonesia, there is a need to have a thorough understanding on how Indonesia has progressed on the earthquake insurance scheme for low income people. This study analyses existing regulations, legal frameworks, and laws related to existing financing schemes for affordable housing, land and building taxation and earthquake insurance tariffs. In order to illustrate how MBRs can afford a house well as protecting it from the risk, short exercises on the integration of earthquake insurance tariffs, microinsurance, affordable housing provision, and building taxation, complements this study with a case in Bandung. This study argues that microinsurance policy can potentially be integrated with the existing scheme of the affordable housing provision and the land and building taxation scheme with limitation in its small payout. Another result shows that in order to increase people’s willingness to purchase insurance, the GoI can utilise its existing SE OJK 6/2017 by increasing the premium of the product than microinsurance but at the same time offers more benefit to the insurers. Every integration scheme analysed in this study is aimed to not only at protecting the continuation of people’s lives and assets from earthquake risk but also triggers the group to own a formal houses with the help of subsidies, thus helping to reduce the fast-growing illegal or informal settlements.
Adaptive Social Protection (ASP)
Internally Displaced Persons (IDP’s) in Indonesia endure many difficulties in terms of social, cultural and economic hardship. Indonesia’s susceptibility to natural disasters, and the subsequent high occurrences of natural disasters means that in terms of process, there must be clear and direct procedures to follow in times immediately following an event. Post-disaster Recover processes, in particular Post Disaster Needs Assessments are extremely important in the assessment of damage, and hence the rehabilitation of a community and its needs and functions. This paper will research and examine the relationship between IDP’s and the processes which are in place to protect them. This is a crucial component to understanding their plight and assisting them better through the recovery process of a disaster. The three main disasters examined in this paper provide a diverse assortment of IDP experiences and a variety of implementations to serve them. These three disasters cover three vastly different areas and encompass a wide cross-section of Indonesian culture and society.
Climate & Disaster Displacement (CDD)