In the realm of urban resilience, mobility plays a pivotal role in ensuring cities can effectively weather disruptions. It encompasses the daily movements of individuals and serves as the lifeblood of urban systems, driving economic activity, supporting businesses, and maintaining crucial infrastructure and social networks. However, both natural and human-induced disasters present persistent risks, underscoring the vital importance of maintaining robust mobility systems for cities to swiftly rebound.
Understanding Mobility Networks
Distinguishing itself from conventional transportation networks, the study of mobility networks employs a different approach to nodes and edges. Here, nodes represent origin and destination points, such as homes and workplaces, while edges denote individuals who frequently traverse between these points. Disruptions of these nodes can have far-reaching economic and social consequences for those dependent on them. Notably, natural disasters like floods can temporarily or permanently obstruct these vital travel nodes, leading to significant negative impacts on affected communities.
Patterns in Human Mobility
Research on general mobility patterns reveals that human movement adheres to specific mathematical distributions characterized by two key parameters. However, most of this research primarily focuses on scenarios under normal conditions, without disruptions. Some studies delve into understanding how human mobility patterns shift before, during, and after disasters, shedding light on the consequences of climate-induced alterations to regular travel routines.
Urban Dynamics in Metropolitan Mamminasata
The Metropolitan Mamminasata (MMA) region stands as a National Strategic Area earmarked for economic development, with the goal of becoming a regional growth nucleus and a major catalyst for progress in Eastern Indonesia. The evolving urban landscape in MMA exerts a substantial influence on the potential for ecological hazards. Among these, floods have emerged as the most frequently occurring disasters in South Sulawesi. This urban expansion also disrupts hydrological systems, escalating the risk of flooding. Moreover, rapid urban growth contributes to the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect, which, in the long run, exacerbates climate change, potentially distorting established mobility patterns.
The Urban Community Resilience Assessment (UCRA)
Developed by the World Resources Institute (WRI), the Urban Community Resilience Assessment (UCRA) offers a comprehensive evaluation of vulnerability contexts at the city level. This assessment serves to identify exposure and sensitivity to disasters and slow-onset events related to climate change. Furthermore, it evaluates the potential for community responses to natural disasters caused by climate change and measures the extent of capacity for learning, adapting, and transforming. It also delves into individual capacities, encompassing factors such as knowledge and understanding of climate-related risks, access to information and communication, economic resources, and transportation used to facilitate daily activities.
Sustainable Transportation: A Pillar of Resilient Communities
Attaining resilience through sustainable transportation involves the development of environmentally friendly, socially equitable, and economically viable transportation systems. This endeavor not only reduces greenhouse gas emissions but also enhances air quality and public health. It simultaneously improves accessibility for economically disadvantaged populations, curtails traffic congestion, and augments economic opportunities. By investing in sustainable transportation infrastructure, societies pave the way for a more resilient future, fortified to confront economic, social, and environmental challenges.
What do we do in RDI?
RDI in collaboration with World Resources Institute Indonesia held a launching event for the Urban Community Resilience Assessment (UCRA) Study report on October 16, 2023, at Arya Duta Hotel Makassar. This meeting was attended by provincial and city/regency governments, NGOs, CSOs, and academics from universities. The discussion also emphasized the importance of collaboration across sectors and administrative areas in policy formulation in Mamminasata, as well as mainstreaming inclusiveness for all in every planning process, including policies and programs formulated. As a next step, this study will serve as input to the regional mid-term and long-term development plan and how the proposed resilience solutions can be integrated into both policy directions and regional program directions.
Written by Syukron Subkhi